Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Justin Chai, Lucian Ho, Abiel Wong
Class: S2-05
Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F /  G/ H   


1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[   X   ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum


[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography


[           ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals


[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene


[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


[       ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households











Investigation of the effect of different citric acids on the flow of electricity.


INTRODUCTION


We are doing a science experiment about citric acid affecting the conduction of electricity. The main purpose is to find out the effect of different citric acid levels on the flow of electricity.The independent variable is limes, lemons, oranges and grapefruits and the AAA batteries being used.The dependent variable is the current of electricity being measured by the multimeter.


A.Question being addressed


Find out the effect of different citric acid levels on the flow of electricity.


The independent variable are the limes, lemons, oranges and grapefruits, and the batteries being used.


The dependent variable is the current of electricity being measured by the multimeter.


The constants for this experiment would be the setting of the multimeter the battery voltage and the position of the metal nails stuck in the fruit in the experiments


When acids are dissolved into water, the acids will break apart into positive and negatively charged ions. These ions have the ability to conduct electricity through a liquid, for example, lemon juice.


Through a process known as oxidation-reduction, the citric acid in the lemon juice and the metals enter the lemon, a chemical reaction will occur, which would result in an electric current. One metal will lose its electrons, a process known as oxidation, and other metal gains those lost electrons, a process known as reduction.


B. Hypothesis


The hypothesis is that the more acidic the citric acid is, the more electrical current can pass through.


C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment list:
  1. (5) limes   
  2. (5) lemons
  3. (5) oranges
  4. (5) grapefruits
  5. (2 meter) copper wire
  6. (1) multimeter
  7. (2) alligator clips with wires
  8. (20) AAA batteries
  9. (1) 5cm zinc nail
  10. (1) 5cm copper nail
  11. (1 bottle) Universal indicator

Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
  1. Set up the experiment as shown in the diagram.
  2. Test the acidity of the citric acid present in the fruit using the universal indicator and record it as the bar graph heading.
  3. Connect multimeter to wires and set multimeter to current setting.
  4. Stick the metal nails into the citrus fruits (about 2 cm apart) and wind the wire around the metal nail about 5 times.
  5. Connect two alligators clips to the positive and the negative end of the 1.5 voltage battery
  6. Connect the fruit to the battery to the multi meter.
  7. Observe the multimeter and record how much electrical current passes through the citrus fruit
  8. repeat the experiment with the same fruits for 5 times and take the average voltage(dont forget to change the batteries for the most accurate results)
  9. After recoding the average voltage of the citrus fruit change the fruit and repeat the the experiment 5 times before changing the fruits again.


• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


  • Gloves Will be worn at all times to prevent electrical shocks and injury form alligator clip.
  • Goggles will also be worn at all times as citric acid might enter our eyes.


  • The Fruit Knife may cut us, therefore, we will have a teacher to assist us.


Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses


1.    Observe, then tabulate the data and calculate the average voltage that passed the citric fruit
2.    Plot a bar graph of the average voltage that passed through the citric fruit
3.    From the graph, we can find out which citrus fruit allow the most electricity current to pass through and would then be able to find out if the fruit with more acidity would allow the most current to pass through. Through a process known as oxidation-reduction, the citric acid in the lemon juice and the metals enter the lemon, a chemical reaction will occur, which would result in an electric current. One metal will lose its electrons, a process known as oxidation, and other metal gains those lost electrons, a process known as reduction. So if the acidic fruit conduct the most electricity, our hypothesis would be correct and successful.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


How does lemon juice conduct electricity. (2013, April 6). Retrieved January 22, 2015.


Smith, C. (2013, August 16). Citric acids in lemons. Retrieved January 20, 2015.


Fruit Battery Power. (2007, June 9). Retrieved January 18, 2015.


Waverly, J. (n.d.m.). Symptoms of Citric Acid Intolerance. Retrieved January 20, 2015


Libal, A. (n.d.m.). Why does citric acid produce electricity. Retrieved January 23, 2015.

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